Cocaine use has increased substantially among African Americans in some of the most underserved areas of the United States. Interventions designed to increase connection to and support from non-drug using family and friends, with access to employment, the faith community, and education, are the best ways to reduce substance use among African Americans and other minorities in low-income, resource-poor communities, a study concludes.
The effect ecstasy has on different parts of the brain has been the focus of recent study. Researchers found that ecstasy users showed significant reductions in the way serotonin is transported in the brain. This can have a particular impact on regulating appropriate emotional reactions to situations.
In the face of chronic pain, clinicians seek best practices for management while evading opioid abuse
Researchers have discussed best practices in management of chronic pain in people with cancer.
Evidence of a compromised dopamine system has been found in heavy users of marijuana. Lower dopamine release was found in the striatum -- a region of the brain that is involved in working memory, impulsive behavior, and attention. Previous studies have shown that addiction to other drugs of abuse, such as cocaine and heroin, have similar effects on dopamine release, but such evidence for cannabis was missing until now.
A complication associated with bone marrow transplantation, graft-versus-host-disease, occurs when a transplanted immune system attacks certain parts of a host's body, and may cause severe dry eye and damage to the cornea. A clinical trial showed that topical doses of ultra low-dose tacrolimus, an immunosuppressive medication, is equally effective and showed fewer hypertensive side effects in treating ocular symptoms associated with graft-versus-host-disease than methylprednisolone, a steroid medication.
Opioids are highly addicting and liable for abuse. Methadone maintenance treatment is the most common intervention for those with drug addiction, but relapse is common, with 46% of patients continuing to use illicit opioids during or after the methadone treatment.
A new study of hundreds of emergency department visits finds that the links between substance misuse and suicide risk are complex, but that use of cocaine and alcohol together was particularly significant.
Millions of people globally are overweight or obese and sugar is considered a major factor. Now a world-first game-changing study suggests drugs used to treat tobacco addiction could work for sugar addiction too.
Use of cannabis during pregnancy is linked to low birthweight and the need for intensive care, reveals an analysis of the available evidence. As cannabis becomes more socially acceptable, it's important that prospective mums-to-be and clinicians are fully up to speed on the potential harms of using the drug during pregnancy, caution the researchers.
In the United States, prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is the most common preventable cause of developmental delay. Animal studies have shown some of the adverse effects of PAE on placental development, but few studies have examined these effects in humans. This is the first study to examine the effects of prenatal exposure to methamphetamine, marijuana, and cigarette smoking on human placental development.
Anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) abuse is associated with severe blood pressure (BP) increase and hypertension, new research reports.
A study of rats given regular, high doses of amphetamine finds that those exposed to the drug at an age corresponding to human adolescence experience long-term changes in brain function that persist into adulthood. The study found that amphetamine leads to changes in dopamine signaling. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that plays a role in memory, attention, learning and feelings of pleasure.
Cannabis dependence is a serious problem worldwide and it is of growing importance in the United States as marijuana becomes increasingly legal, report experts.
Prenatal steroid treatment reduces by half a premature baby's risk for a severe form of brain hemorrhage after birth, a study has found. The research, on nearly 26,000 premature infants, demonstrated that the benefit applies even to the earliest born preemies, who can be overlooked as potential candidates for this steroid treatment.
Treating symptoms of cannabis withdrawal could help heavy users stay clean longer, finds a new study. Marijuana's long half-life and users' reports of primarily psychological withdrawal symptoms have fueled the longstanding controversy among clinicians and researchers about whether physiological dependency and withdrawal symptoms actually occur.
People who smoked cannabis four or more days of the week over many years ended up in a lower social class than their parents, with lower-paying, less skilled and less prestigious jobs than those who were not regular cannabis smokers, shows a research study that followed children from birth up to age 38. These regular and persistent users also experienced more financial, work-related and relationship difficulties, which worsened as the number of years of regular cannabis use progressed.